Common name: Crab, Atlantic Horseshoe, Scientific name: Limulus polyphemus

 This crab is listed as near threatened by Endangered Species International. The species is vulnerable to overfishing, as only about 10 eggs out of 90,000 hatch and the young survive to live their lives and reproduce. Humans can help preserve sandy beaches without shoreline modifications and development that prevent the crabs from reaching a sandy beach for egg laying (Endangered Species, 2013). Help protect this creature so it can keep your medications safe. An extract from the horseshoe crab is used to find evidence of bacteria that may contaminate injectable drugs. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration requires injectable medications to have the crab extract testing done before a product can go on the market (Cooper).

 Cooper, J. (2010). Automated endotoxin testing program for high-risk-level compounded sterile preparations at an institutional compounding pharmacy. American Journal of Health System Pharmacy, 280-286

 Endangered Species International. (2013, June 30). ESI Field Report, Horseshoe Crab. Retrieved from Endangered Species International:


 Common name: Eagle, Bald, Scientific name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus

 Effects of the pesticide DDT were considered among the crucial factors causing decline of the national bird of the United States of America. DDT, once eaten in contaminated food, caused the egg shells of eagles to be so weak as to not survive incubation. In 1972 The Environmental Protection Agency took the controversial step of banning DDT in the USA. In 1999, with population recovery, the EPA announced that eagles were no longer considered endangered or threatened. These important birds will continue to be protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, both of which protect against killing or selling eagles (Fish & Wildlife Service, 2015). Additional interesting bird features include the fact that they mate for life and live for 15-25 years in the wild. Also, female bald eagles, or American eagles weigh about 14 pounds and have a wing span of 8 feet. The males are smaller at about 10 pounds and 6 feet wing span (American Bald Eagle Information, 2015).

 Fish and Wildlife Service. (2015) Bald Eagle; Fact Sheet: natural history, ecology, and history of recovery Retrieved Dec 8, 2015, from

 American Bald Eagle Information. (2015) Bald Eagle Facts and Photos, Retrieved December 8, 2015 from     



Common name: Giraffe, Scientific name: Giraffa camelopardalis  

   The latest estimate is that the giraffe population has decreased by about 40%, or to less than 100,000 individuals over the last 20 years.  This loss of the animal is due to various issues including habitat loss and fragmentation. The changing conditions are linked to increased human populations and illegal hunting of giraffe. The giraffe has been considered of least concern in the past when all individuals were considered to be one species. More resent scientific assessment of the giraffe is showing subspecies of giraffe with at least as much difference as there is between polar bears and brown bears. The genetic research being completed now will help to form the foundation of conservation management of this creature and help to insure its long-term survival (Giraffe Conservation Organization, 2016). Further interesting characteristics of this animal is the great height. The tallest individuals can reach 19 feet tall, which is an advantage in eating leaves from high branches (Wallis,2015).

 Giraffe Conservation Organization. (2016) Giraffe Conservation Status, Retrieved Nov. 5, 2016 from

 Wallis, Daniel. (2015) Reuther’s Panel- African Giraffes Endangered, Retrieved December 9, 2015 from

 Common name: Goat, Apennine Chamois, Scientific name: Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata    

      Dangers to these vulnerable animals include limited numbers of some subspecies and low genetic variability in the population. These wild mountain goats of Europe prefer to graze at high altitudes in summer and descend to lower steeply sloped forest areas in winter. Contact with domesticated goats and sheep in lower winter grazing grounds is also a threat as the domestic animas often serve as carriers of transmittable diseases that the wild population are ill equipped to combat (Il Portale del Camoscio Appenninico, 2014). The Apennine Chamois is specifically protected under Italian law because it is considered one of the rarest animals in that county. The females and young live in cooperative groups where nurseries are formed in the birthing season, May and June. The females take turns tending to the young, while other new moms are grazing. The males will begin to live separately at about age two.

 Il Portale del Camoscio Appenninico. (2014) Development of the coordinated protection measures for Apennine Chamois LIFE09 NAT/IT/000183, Retrieved

Common name: Monkey, White Bellied Spider Monkey, Scientific name: Atleles belzebuth

    Spider monkeys are well adapted animals to tree top living and are at home far up in the rain forest tree canopies. The spider monkey gets his name from the long arms and tail. The monkey’s spider like arms and tail provide an excellent means of wrapping around tree branches and swinging from tree to tree. This animal rarely chooses to walk around the forest floor. When it does descend to the ground, it is easier prey due to the long arms nearly dragging the earth, making movement difficult.

    Mature males can weigh up to 24 pounds and are attractive hunting targets for people. As cited in All about Nature (2013) the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUNC) reports that there are nine spider monkey species that live in the forest areas from Brazil to Mexico. All of these groups are either endangered or vulnerable. This combined with the habitat loss through human activity has led to their reduced numbers.

 All about wildlife. (2013, January 20) Spider Monkeys.  Retrieved from:


 Common name: Owl, Barn owl, Scientific name: Tyto alba

    This bird is the widest spread of all owls and lives on all continents except Antarctic. These owls like habitat near open fields that host meadow voles, their preferred food. A hollow tree maybe used, but man-made structures like belfries and water towers are acceptable. This bird gets the name of Barn Owl from its fondness for nesting in barn lofts. Nesting can continue from March through October. A nest of about 11 eggs may be laid, but usually only three or four young survive the nesting period of about eight to ten weeks. Other features of this animal include its heart shaped face, long legs and lack of ear tuffs which have earned it the nick name of monkey face owl. This bird grows to about sixteen inches tall and is while underneath and golden above. They make sounds that are described and screams or hissing, rather than the more well know owl hooting (DNR, 2013). The ability to live closely alongside humans has likely contributed to its continued survival success.

 Department of Natural Resources. (2013). Barn Owl. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from Department of Natural Resources:


Common name: Polar Bear, Scientific name: Ursus maritimus

  The amount of warming by end of the century is projected to correspond to global emissions of greenhouse gases. Increased heat will cause melting ice and smaller year-round habitat for polar bears. Also, melting ice will rise sea level and may shrink terrain for human habitation. In addition, carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels causes ocean water to become more acidic, making living conditions difficult or impossible for some marine life (Federal Advisory Committee, 2013).    What can people do to help? Seek alternate power sources for transportation and home or office. Also, join planning and governance groups to manage our resources and plan for the future. Saving the polar bear’s icy polar habitat will keep sea level rise lower and help preserve our own home turf.

Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment Report for Public Review-Executive Summary     p 4, version. (2013) Retrieved April 2, 2013 from


 Common name: Shark, Spiny Dogfish, Scientific name: Squalus acanthus

    The rarest of the six endangered subspecies of tiger is the South China Tiger. This subspecies is nearing extension. It may no longer exist in the wild, however, there are approximately 100 individuals in captivity. The tiger’s numbers were greatly reduced by government extermination teams from the early 1950s through the 1970s. Current effort is underway to reintroduce a viable population of South China Tigers to the wild in portions of their former habitat (Sanderson, 2013).

  Sanderson, J.V. (2013, March 12). Rewilding the South China Tiger. Retrieved from Save China’s



 Common name; Shark, Paroon fish, Scientific name: Pangasius sanitwongsei 

    This beautiful silvery native of Asian rivers is one of the world’s largest fresh water fish. It can reach over eight feet in length and weigh over 600 pounds. Its size is second only to the Mekong catfish. Life span of this fish is about twenty years if allowed to live out it’s time. One primary reason for the decline in numbers is the overfishing for food in Asian countries. 

    Secondarily, the home aquarium trade is decreasing their numbers. Thousands are imported to the west annually. In pet stores Paroon fish, sometimes called Paroon sharks, appear as attractive, two to three-inch silver and gold aquarium fish. These aquarium trade fish mostly come from commercial fish farms. Few purchasers realize the size potential of these creatures and their lack of suitability for a home aquarium. This can end in the early death of the animal due to lack of the owner’s ability to care for it. Also, it could end up in a public waterway where this very large omnivorous fish has been known to eat a whole dog carcass. One thing people can do to help is simply not to purchase them for meat or as pets (Seriously Fishy, 2016).

 Seriously Fishy. (2016) Pangasius sanitwongsei. Retrieved  November 5, 2016 from Seriously Fishy:


 Common name: Snail, Cone Snail, Scientific name: Conus magus

    From the ocean comes a powerful non-narcotic pain killer. It is a synthetic version of the venom of the cone snail. The medicine, named Ziconotide, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with severe nerve pain. It must be taken by injection into the spinal column.  Prolonged use does not lead to addiction (McGivern, 2007).

    Currently none of the cone snail varieties are listed as threatened or endangered, according to the Aquarium of the Pacific.  However, there is concern that some restrictions should be put on collection of the shells for their colorful appearance.  With the snails being collected also for medical research and medications, the pressure may become too much. Help protect this creature, so it can help you. Don’t collect these animals for shells that will become decorative displays (Aquarium of Pacific, 2013).

 Aquarium of the Pacific. (2013). Cone Snail General Description. Retrieved  June 30, from Aquarium othe Pacific On line Learing Center: www.aquarium of

 McGivern, J. (2007). Ziconotide: a review of its pharmacology and use in treatment of pain. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 3(1), 69-85.


Common name Turtle, Green Sea Turtle, Scientific name: Chelonia mydas 

    Green sea turtles are threatened except in Florida where they are endangered. The average adult can be about three feet across and over 300 pounds. The shell is olive to brown with fan like designs. The animal’s underside is yellowish white.  It is one of five types of sea turtles that swim near, and nest on, beaches of the U.S. Atlantic. The other four are Hawksbill, Kemp’s Ridley, Loggerhead and Leatherback. All five varieties of the U.S. Atlantic sea turtles are either endangered or threatened (Wynne, 1999).

    Mating occurs off shore and females come to the beach to lay eggs in spring and summer. The same female may lay eggs two or three times per season, with about 100-150 eggs per clutch. Following a 45 to 60-day incubation, the eggs hatch and the babies dig their way out of the nest and head for the ocean. However, few of the hatchlings will live to maturity and reproduce. Some of the things that reduce the numbers include degradation of nesting and feeding grounds, boat collisions, fishing gear entanglement and disease. Humans can help by not catching and eating the turtle or it’s eggs, helping to maintain beach areas as safe for nesting and being watchful of and avoiding turtles in the water when out boating (Wynne, 1999).

 Wynne, K. S. (1999). Guide to Marine Mammals and Turtles of the U.S. Atlantic & Gulf of Mexico. Narragansett: Rhode Island Sea Grant.


 Common name: Humpback Whale, Scientific name: Megaptera novaeanglie

             Humpback whale is a warm blooded, air-breathing mammal that gives birth to live young. Maturity is reached at four to six years and a single calf is produced every two to three years. A calf can weigh about two tons at birth. Adults can reach lengths of 52 feet and weigh as much as 40 tons.  This whale is in the baleen whale group and has long pectoral or front flippers with knobs on the leading edges. The whale’s snout, or rostrum, has tubercles or bumps. The Humpback eats small fish that travel in schools, such as capelin and herring. They also eat krill and sometimes use a bubble net to help catch them.  Humpbacks and whales in general have been hunted world-wide for the fat, which provides whale oil (Wynne, 1999).

 Commercial exploitation from the 1800s until 1966 lead to the endangered status of this whale. About 8,000 to 10,000 are in the North Atlantic and about 300 to 700 are in United States waters. Currently ship collisions and fishing gear entanglements may be sources of mortalities (Wynne, 1999).

 Wynne, K., & Schwartz, M. (2009). Guide to Marine Mammals and Turtles of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Narragansett, Road Island: Road Island Sea Grant



Common name: Bactrin Camel, Scientific name: Camelus ferus  

    The Bactrin camel can be recognized by its two humps, which are made up of mostly fatty material. This animal is native to the arid steppes of central Asia. It can grow large despite the sparse vegetation and water usually available. The camel can reach about nine and half feet long and about seven and a half feet high, with a weight over 2,000 pounds (WAZA, 2018).

 World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, 2018.


Common name: King Penguin, Scientific name: Aptenodytes patagonicus 

    The King penguin is similar in appearance to the Emperor penguin. King penguins are smaller than the Emperor, with an adult weight of about 32 pounds for Kings and 60 pounds for Emperors.Also, the two animals can be distinguished in several behavioral ways. Emperors live further south, closer to the South Pole, while Kings are restricted to the sub-Artic belt, in locations such as Falklands. Among birds, King penguins have the longest breeding cycle. They can take 14 to 16 months to fledge just one chick. King penguins particularly rely on laternfish as a main source of food (Penguin World, 2018).

 Penguin World, 2018, King Penguin.


Common name: African Elephant, Scientific name: Loxodonta africana 

    African elephants are currently the biggest animals to roam the land. These magnificent animals can weigh up to six tons. The gray giants can be eleven feet tall at the shoulder and 19-20 feet long. There are two varieties of African elephants, the larger one featured here, is considered a savanna or bush elephant. It lives in the woodlands and grass plains of Africa, while its smaller relative lives in the forest near the equator of western and central Africa (World Wildlife Fund, 2018). You can help by simply not making purchases of ivory products. This will drive the market demand down and reduce the number of poachers motivated to hunt elephants for their ivory tusks.

 World Wildlife Fund, 2018.


Common name: South China Tiger, Scientific name: Panthera tigris amoyensis

   The rarest of the six endangered subspecies of tiger is the South China Tiger. This subspecies is nearing extension. It may no longer exist in the wild, however, there are approximately 100 individuals in captivity. The tiger’s number were greatly reduced by government teams from the 1950s through the 1970s. Effort is underway to reintroduce a viable population of South China Tigers to the wild in their former habitat (Sanderson, 2013). 

    What can people do to help the tiger recover? One thing is not to fuel the demand for black market tiger parts by simply not purchasing such items. Fourteen stores in New York City were found to sell tiger bone products illegally (Haddon, 2011).

Haddon, H. (2011, December 27). New York’s Black Market for Tiger Medicines. The Wall Street Journal.

Sanderson, J.V. (2013, March 12). Rewilding the South China Tiger. Retrieved from Save China’s Tigers:


Commom name: Wild Turkey, Scientific name: Meleagris gallopavo   

    The numbers of these  American icons were at a low point (1.5 million) in 1973 when the Wild Turkey Federation was founded. Numbers climbed to a historic high (6.7 million) by the year 2013. This achievement reflected forty years of conservation efforts and currently Wild Turkeys are considered in the least concern category. However, numbers have been dropping in recent years with an estimated bird population of 6.2 million in 2018. A significant number of hens may not find high quality nesting conditions or be successful in raising her chicks. If the  vegetation thins or is of less quality in brooding areas the decline in turkey population can be expected to continue (Wild Turkey Federation, 2018).

Wild Turkey Federation, 2018, Conservation, populations Downloaded September 21, 2018.